Wednesday, August 31, 2011

Dealing with windows 7 Stop Errors

Stop errors in windows 7 part of the so-called Windows 7 blue screen of death phenomenon that halts your Windows 7 session—are some of the most frustrating errors you may experience, especially if you receive them frequently and the content of the stop error message changes from crisis to crisis. These aren’t entirely new to windows 7; you just know them by different names, such as invalid page faults, from earlier versions of Windows.
Like other types of error messages, it’s important to get the exact text of the error on this screen. This can matter in determining what is causing the problem; even if the message doesn’t make sense to you, a technical support representative may be able to look it up, or you can check it against the database at the Microsoft Knowledge Base. windows 7 stop errors are typically caused by issues with either hardware or software. These can include:
  • Outdated or corrupted hardware or software drivers
  • An incompatible device that Windows cannot work with
  • Badly-behaving applications or utilities
  • An improper or corrupted Windows 7 installation
  • Failing or incompatible memory
  • Windows installed to a system with a corrupted or out-of-date BIOS
  • Hard drive problems (including those related to overheating)
  • A virus
The first thing to suspect is any hardware or software you’ve recently added or modified. If possible, return your system to the way it was before you made the change, either by removing what you installed or resetting changes in the configuration. If this modification was the cause of the problem, switching back should resolve it. If not, leave this change undone until you can figure out what is causing the system halts.
The frequency with which stop errors or invalid page faults occur is important. Most of us get into a strange situation now and again that might cause a single stop or invalid page fault error. A restart of your system is often all that’s needed to clear it. But when the error recurs, especially if it recurs after a restart, you’ve probably got more than a transient problem on your hands.
Exactly when errors occur matters, too, because you can sometimes detect a pattern. For example, if every time you use your scanner you receive an invalid page fault or stop error, look at the scanner, its TWAIN driver (the drivers used by acquisition devices like scanners and digital cameras), its software, or the way Windows is trying to use it. Something is amiss.
More headaches occur when you can’t see a discernible pattern. In these cases, you just may need to observe the situation longer. For example, if doing various tasks in Windows produces the
same types of problems (crashing, slowdowns, errors), look first at what software is always running at the time this problem expresses itself. Maybe your out-of-date virus software or your last-version-of-Windows disk utility is running in the background each time, and this is the cause of your problems. Once all this is checked, it’s time to look at critical hardware, such as memory, your hard drive, and even your motherboard and CPU, because a problem or impending failure with any of those can produce significant Windows instability.
In the worst scenarios, you’ll find Windows reporting a problem with memory management in this blue screen, while telling you about an IRQ problem in another. Like the previous situation, you need to investigate what software is always running when this occurs. Once software is ruled out as a cause, investigate hardware problems as the possible cause.

Aligning IT with the Business

In recent times there has been much talk of the need to align the IT function with the business. The theory being that if the IT function is heading in the same direction as the business it can begin to actually help, rather than hinder, the business to meet its wider objectives. IT leaders and software vendors have seized upon this piece of wisdom and have lavished many hundreds of hours and millions of marketing dollars upon the promotion of IT as a valuable business contributor rather than a necessary evil.

Such attempts are largely nothing more than window dressing to cover up for the fact that IT departments the world over are largely left to function in isolation with little or no impact upon business strategy. Instead the role of IT in even the most progressive organisations is to maintain the status quo and ensure that the business can proceed in the direction it already believes is appropriate. The investigation of new technology advances and their potential usage to further business objectives and/or open up new markets are left to the larger systems integrators, management consultancies, analyst community and self proclaimed industry gurus . . .

What Do We Mean by Alignment?

When pushed to explain what is meant by the term IT Business Alignment, the market responds with cliched sound bites regarding opening up positive channels of communication between senior IT management and key stakeholders within the business.

Through additional communication it is believed that common concerns will be identified sooner and that the IT function will be able to respond to changing business requirements faster. In reality such regular meetings do little to improve the way in which IT contributes to the organisation other than perhaps reducing the time lag between external business impacting events and the issuance of demands to the IT function to enable the business to respond effectively.

ITIL goes one stage further to promote the setting up of regular dialogues between service providers and service consumers to thrash out requirements and concerns regarding delivery quality etc. The output of such conversations are intended to form Service Level Agreements (SLAs) which clearly define what the business expects of the IT function (and indeed what the IT function can expect from the business with regards to inputs and information etc) and the performance metrics in place to measure compliance against the agreed terms. Having had the mis-fortune to review many hundreds of such documents over the past decade, I can categorically state that I have never seen any such agreement that has been designed to improve and enhance the businesss overall performance. Instead they are typically formalised sticks with which either party can beat the other in the event of a failure on the part of the other.

Another common approach to aligning IT with the business is to decentralise the IT function and embed small IT teams within local business units. Such an approach is based upon the premise that close physical proximity will breed a closer working relationship and that this will improve the level of understanding and cooperation on all sides. Regrettably, the reality is often less than beneficial as the inherent void between the IT function and the business becomes clearer for all to see . . .

A 2006 survey of IT directors and Finance directors showed that IT management dont trust their boardroom counterparts in charge of finance to manage offshore IT outsourcing contracts. By coincidence, the survey showed that Financial management dont trust their IT directors either. It is perhaps no surprise that the survey found significant differences of opinion between these two factions. Finance directors are the old guard, protecting the company from the vagaries of the market and management fads.

They see IT directors as the young upstarts, keen to squander the companys precious resources on the promise of untold gains. IT directors often have about the same standing with Finance directors in blue chip firms as rookie sales executives - they are tolerated because they are a necessity, nothing more.  But the differences in perception shown by the survey are quite stark. One per cent of finance directors thought IT directors should be trusted with responsibility for managing an outsourcing deal. Only 2 per cent of IT directors thought that their Finance colleagues should be given the job. Such a result clearly highlights the massive gulf between these two business critical functions, this may be due to the ghosts of one too many failed ERP implementations coming home to roost. One things for sure, aligning IT with the business will take much more than marketing sound bites and ambitious proclamations if it is to become a reality.

Such misalignments are invariably about trust or the lack of it. Trust has to be established between IT and the rest of the business. Because of ITs pervasive nature, the internet boom of the late 1990s, ITs chequered past and less than perfect track record there are many people with business that have had personal negative experiences with IT. If real change is to be made regarding the perception of IT within an organisation it will have to be done one person at a time. Unfortunately, building trust takes time and requires a concerted effort on the part of everyone concerned. Every tentative step forward must be built upon positive user experiences and underpinned by consistent service delivery. Positive examples from senior management help, but it is worth remembering that months of progress can be undermined by a single momentary loss of focus or thoughtless comment.

How Aligned are You?

Whatever the definition of IT Business alignment in use, it is necessary to first understand where you are before a useful plan of action to get to any desired end state can be determined. The following list of questions will help identify how aligned your IT function is with your business . . . Unfortunately there are no hard and fast rules regarding what it takes for IT to become a business peer to the likes of the sales, operations, marketing, finance, production and HR functions. The following questions will help you to ascertain how much work there remains for IT to be considered a valuable contributor to the business:

Does the most senior IT executive within the business report directly to the CEO?

Does the CIO attend all board meetings? Are IT related issues routinely discussed at such meetings?

Are IT related performance metrics included within monthly management reports?

Where is the CIOs parking space in relation to other senior executives?

Is corporate IT policy dictated by the in-flight magazines that the CEO level executives read whilst on the plane?

Is IT seen as a provider of toys for the boys? Or is it recognised as avaluable business contributor?

Tuesday, August 30, 2011

IT GOVERNANCE COURSE 18 : Understanding Personnel Roles and Responsibilities

Individuals can hold any number of roles or responsibilities within an organization. The responsibilities each employee has and to whom he or she reports should be noted. An auditor’s first option for determining this information should be an organizational chart. After obtaining and reviewing the organizational chart, the auditor should spend some time reviewing each employee’s area to see how the job description matches actual activities. The areas to focus attention on include these:

  • Help desk

  • End user support manager

  • Quality assurance manager

  • Data manager

  • Rank and file employees

  • Systems-development manager

  • Software-development manager

Employee Roles and Duties

Most organizations have clearly defined controls that specify what each job role is responsible for. An auditor should be concerned with these common roles within the IS structure:

  • Librarian Responsible for all types of media, including tapes, cartridges, CDs, DVDs, and so on. Librarians must track, store, and recall media as needed. They also must document when the data was stored and retrieved, and who accessed it. If data moves off-site, librarians track when it was sent and when it arrived. They may also be asked to assist in an audit to verify what type of media is still being held at a vendor’s site.

  • Data-entry employee Although most data-entry activities are now outsourced, in the not-too-distant past, these activities were performed in-house at an information processing facility (IPF). During this time, a full-time data-entry person was assigned the task of entering all data. Bar codes, scanning, and web entry forms have also reduced the demand for these services. If this role is still used, key verification is one of the primary means of control.

  • Systems administrator This employee is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the LAN and associated components such as mid-range or mainframe systems.

  • Although small organizations might have only one systems administrator, larger organizations have many.

  • Quality-assurance employee Employees in a quality-assurance role can fill one of two roles: quality assurance or quality control. Quality-assurance employees make sure programs and documentation adhere to standards; quality-control employees perform tests at various stages of product development to make sure they are free of defects.

  • Database administrator This employee is responsible for the organization’s data and maintains the data structure. The database administrator has control over all the data; therefore, detective controls and supervision of duties must be observed closely. This is usually a role filled by a senior information systems employee because these employees have control over the physical data definition, implementing data definition controls and defining and initiating backup and recovery.

  • Systems analyst these employees are involved in the system development lifecycle (SDLC) process. They are responsible for determining the needs of users and developing requirements and specifications for the design of needed software programs.

  • Network administrators These employees are responsible for maintenance and configuration of network equipment, such as routers, switches, firewalls, wireless access points, and so on.

  • Security architect These employees examine the security infrastructure of the organization’s network.

Segregation of Duties

Job titles can be confusing because different organizations sometimes use different titles for various positions. It helps when the title matches the actual job duties the employee performs.Some roles and functions are just not compatible. For an auditor, concern over such incompatibility centers on the risks these roles represent when combined. Segregation of duties usually falls into four areas of control:

  • Authorization Verifying cash, approving purchases, and approving changes

  • Custody Accessing cash, merchandise, or inventories

  • Record keeping Preparing receipts, maintaining records, and posting payments.

  • Reconciliation Comparing dollar amounts, counts, reports, and payroll summaries

Lists below give some of the duties that should not be combined because they can result in a control weakness.

  • System analyst will not ever combine with security administrator

  • Help desk with network administrator

  • Computer operator with system programmer

  • System administrator with database administrator

  • Security administrator with application programmer

  • System programmer with security administrator

Compensating Controls

Because of the problems that can occur when certain tasks are combined, separation of duties is required to provide accountability and control. When it cannot be used, compensating controls should be considered. In small organizations, it is usually very difficult to adequately separate job tasks. In these instances, one or more of the following compensating controls should be considered:

  • Job rotation; The concept is to not have one person in one position for too long a period of time. This prevents a single employee from having too much control.

  • Audit trail; Although audit trails are a popular item after a security breach, they should be examined more frequently. Audit trails enable an auditor to determine what actions specific individuals performed; they provide accountability.

  • Reconciliation; This is a specific type of audit in which records are compared to make sure they balance. Although they’re primarily used in financial audits, they are also useful for computer batch processing and other areas in which totals should be compared.

  • Exception report; This type of report notes errors or exceptions. Exception reports should be made available to managers and supervisors so that they can track errors and other problems.

  • Transaction log; This type of report tracks transactions and the time of occurrence. Managers should use transaction reports to track specific activities.

  • Supervisor review; Supervisor reviews can be performed through observation or inquiry, or remotely using software tools and applications.

Skills for Mobile Game Development

Many games online are now being programmed for a wide selection of mobile platforms. This is the reason why mobile game development is being foreseen in the future as a fast growing industry. People working in the mobile game development industry and those who are planning to enter it must know the proper skills a person should have. That is if he wants to be successful in this area.
1. One of the skills that a mobile game developer must have is to have a basic understanding of scripting. A developer doesn't often have access to permanent tools programmer; therefore he must be knowledgeable with macro scripts. It is even better if he can write his own scripts, which will make the workflow in Photoshop faster. This can also be applicable with 3DS Max which saves hours or even days of work.
2. Another helpful skill for mobile game development is having a good image viewer. Some developers prefer ACDsee because this is capable of viewing any non-proprietary image format. However, there are other utilities that are available on the market. Since mobiles are so small, mobile games have lots of limitations in terms of hardware. It is therefore important that a developer can do a lot in such a small size.
3. The last helpful skill that a person should have in mobile game development is flexibility. This means that he is willing to become a generalist. Although specialization is also good, mobile game development must be about doing anything and everything, may it be creating pixel fonts or animating polygon models.

Monday, August 29, 2011

Android Market Access on the Web

Android Market is the one stop shop where most of the applications for Android-based smartphone mobile device can search, download for free, or buy to install. Android Market has been all along is only accessible through the embedded application market by default on all OS Android, so far.

Web-based Android Market

Google has officially launched the Android Market web-based Android event in the honeycomb at the headquarters of Google, which has been introduced into Google I / O 2010 event. With the launch of the web shop based on Android Market, users of Android device can also be any web browser on your computer or mobile device's browser to download and install applications on Android.

The online store features Android Market applications and games featured in the slideshow, and typical applications free and paid top up and gaming in general for all applications and games or by category. The user can search and view details of the applications or games, including user reviews, records of changes and permits. The website, Android application store, even allows users to send applications to install Android on the mobile device directly from the web, go to Android Market with the user uses the same account on the phone.

Visit Android Market on the web via https: / / /.

The Secure Wireless Technology

Many people are working to improve the security of the WLAN. The greatest reason is to upgrade the security functionality. To a lesser degree, but equally important, these efforts also promote assurance to the users and managers of wireless devices. Here are three approaches that have promise for the future of 802.11 WLAN.


The future of secure WLAN may rest with products like nDosa Access Point. nDosa Technologies introduced a secure wireless LAN technology based on its nESA (nDosa Enhanced Security Algorithm) that renders its signal invisible to would-be hackers and unauthorized observers, and hence, greatly reduces its vulnerability to hacking and intrusion. It should be noted, however, that although some determined hackers may still be able observe the RF signal and monitor LAN activity over the air, it would be extremely difficult for them to break into the system (Kim & Shin, 2003). Like other WLAN solutions, it is scalable, upgradeable, flexible and can be customized. nDosa secure WLAN users can access not only nDosa secure WLANs but also the standard WLANs deployed widely in public places or in highly secure areas. When needs arise to enhance authentication or key management procedure, nDosa secure WLAN technology can be applied without alteration. Encryption algorithms and security solutions, in general, need to be upgraded continually as they are at war against hackers. According to the literature, nESA is designed to make upgrades simple and easy.


The combination of the proposed wireless LAN scheme with nDosa’s existing secure wireless LAN technology would render the system not only invisible even in the RF band, but also assures that the system will remain relatively impervious to break-ins even if the signal is detected. Implementation of both security measures would provide the wireless LAN with ironclad security that is necessary and appropriate for defense of government applications and data.



Wi-Fi Protected Access is a specification of standards-based, interoperable security enhancements that strongly increase the level of data protection and access control for existing and future wireless LAN systems. Designed to run on existing hardware as a software upgrade, Wi- Fi Protected Access is derived from and will be forward compatible with the upcoming IEEE 802.11i standard ( ). WPA is a proactive response by the industry to offer an immediate and strong security solution. An inexpensive software upgrade is now available to installation at the enterprise or SOHO WLANs. This solution is compatible across multiple vendors and is configurable with authentication servers or as a stand-alone. WPA is a subset of the 802.11i draft standard and will maintain forward compatibility.


Wi-Fi Protected Access was constructed to provide an improved data encryption, which was weak in WEP, and to provide user authentication, which was largely missing in WEP. The improvements are centered on the use of enhanced data encryption through Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP). TKIP provides important data encryption enhancements including a per-packet key mixing function, a message integrity check (MIC) named Michael, an extended initialization vector (IV) with sequencing rules, and a re-keying mechanism. Through these enhancements, TKIP addresses all WEP’s known vulnerabilities.

Table: Comparison Chart

 WEP WPA 802.11i nDOSA 
Key Size 40 bits 128 bits encryption 64 bits authentication 128 bits 128 ~ 256 bits 
Key Life 24-bit IV 48-bit IV 48-bits IV 48-bits IV 
Packet Key Concatenated Mixing Function Not Needed Mixing Function 
Data Integrity CRC-32 Michael CCM CRC-32 
Header Integrity None Michael CCM nESA 
Replay Attack None IV Sequence IV Sequence Encrypted IV 
Key Management None EAP EAP EAP & any other methods 
Header Encryption None None None nESA 
Hidden Mode None None None Yes 

Using the Enterprise-level User Authentication via 802.1x and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) WEP has almost no user authentication mechanism, Wi-Fi Protected Access implements 802.1x and the EAP strengthens user authentication. Together, these implementations provide a framework for strong user authentication. This framework utilizes a central authentication server, such as RADIUS, to authenticate each user on the network before they join it, and also employs “mutual authentication” so that the wireless user does not accidentally join a rogue network that might steal its network credentials.

Data backup can speed up recovery

If you have a computer on a regular basis or you personally have a file with important to you, it is prudent to check whether you have a back-up data to a recovery easier in the case of a crash.

The process of back-up, although often takes hours to complete, but is a welcome side effect in the event of a problem.

The backup data restoration processes are much easier to handle than when you are dealing with a computer that has never been backed-uped. This is for several reasons:

* If a backup of the data was performed on a regular basis, then the "lost" files from a crash is not really lost. The computer can be made and then the files to their original location to be put back.

* If the computer crashes totally lost, then the backup data to save you days, by readily available on a new machine. Restoration of a data backup is a lot easier to handle than trying to open files from the hard disk crashed.

* Expenditure. It is a lot cheaper to back up the data to load for a restoration than paying a service to recover the data. These services can cost much more money than you think.

Remember, there are also still backed up data recovery programs available for use when only some applications crashed. These are generally do-it-yourself tools and costs much less than a full recovery.

If you feel the need to back up data to your computer then you have a few options:

* A full data backup protection restoration process would lead to the copying of files on a regular basis to a specialized disk with a storage capacity. ZIP drives, tapes and other similar devices to the backup process much more smoothly.

* Select file backups. This method is only recommended for those who only need specific files on their computer. All that is needed is only the safe storage of the files on one disc or multiple discs. Make sure that discs are clearly marked and store in a good spot, so they can be found in an emergency.

* System checkpoints. Many computer programs are regularly operating system back-ups themselves. But the problem is that the data is stored on the computer itself. If the crash damage shall deliver to the whole computer, the information should still be open during the restoration of backup data.

Prevent a disaster

If your computer uses nou the day or only occasionally, there are files that you probably would not want to lose. If this is the case, a good back-up restoration plan be considered.

Make sure you back up data on a regular basis would, and storing them in places where you access it, so you can use.

Perform maintenance on your computer will be able to avoid a crash occurs. There are no guarantees, but a good back-up can help to avert a complete disaster.

Sunday, August 28, 2011

Windows 7 Ultimate: Compare it by Vista

Whenever a new gadget or program is released or even mentioned to be released in public soon, there's always uproar by two sides with a silent majority of consumers watching.

On one side, there are the manufacturers, who would staunchly defend their product and claim that if it is not the best, then it is an improvement. On the other, there are the critics who would always make intelligent guesses on the possible outcomes and shortcomings of the product based on the designs.

With Windows 7 Ultimate, this is also the same. Even before it was released in parcels, as an act of testing the waters, battle lines have already been drawn between the two sides.

But what's uncommon with this was that there was an outpouring of support for Windows 7 Ultimate, as well as inquires that forced Microsoft to be slowed down.
They even had to open up other servers to service the in-coming tide of questions, otherwise, the next time a person checks up with Microsoft, they would end up with errors.

There were scores of people asking if Windows 7 Ultimate was good enough to cause all of the riots in the Internet that it caused. A trial of the Windows 7 Ultimate shows that it is, especially when compared with Vista.

The thing was, the differences were really apparent, with Windows 7 Ultimate being shown as a flexible OS to have, and Vista, an old creation. Flexible is the term to use, as there are scores of other programs that's compatible automatically with Windows 7 Ultimate.

Whereas, Vista, if it was a person, would have to ask and be introduced first to the program in a painstaking process which all IT pros know. In speaking of IT pros, guess which of the two was favored by them even during the installation process as being easier, faster, and less-prone to errors?

Enterprise Governance - Improving Reporting Content


Timeliness Is Nothing Without Quality of Content

The second key theme that has emerged from our research is the so-called 'information gap' between the current decision support capabilities of firms and the information needs of senior

executives. As Figure 7.5 illustrates, finance professionals appear to be struggling to get a better understanding of the organisation's business model and to get real insights into the sources ofvalue. The specific activities which finance profession­als and other providers of CPM are most concerned with at present are:

• understanding business cost dynamics;

• driving profitability proactively;

• performance measurement;

• controlling costs.

Conversely, senior executives appear to have clear priorities with respect to the information and analysis they need. As Figure 7.6 illustrates, much of this additional information and analysis lies outside the traditional financial reporting which has characterised many finance departments to date.

Although organisations have long been involved in evaluating their performance through measuring financial returns, settingclip_image004

performance standards and comparing budgetary outcomes with plans, to achieve good enterprise governance, the measurement of both overall and business unit performance in relation to the objectives has to be identified in the planning process. Consequently, performance measurement systems are a key factor in ensuring the successful implementation of an organi­sation's enterprise governance strategy.

In addition, companies also need to understand how well they are making progress towards all of their strategic goals. Traditional reporting systems have been largely based on historical financial performance, but the performance of the business must be measured over all aspects critical to its success. It is also important that measurement be directed to influence and forecast future performance, rather than merely understand and record past results.

In many organisations, most ofthis information already exists; what they lack is the knowledge management skills and systems to capture, disseminate and leverage its true value. A company's store of market insights and foresights needs to be constantly updated and accessible to the teams who can leverage its value.

It is vital to have the right measurements since the very act of measurement affects behaviour.1 If measurements are not carefully aligned with the strategic, operational and process objectives of the business, they will prompt behaviour which will run counter to these goals - people tend to focus on the areas that are being measured and assume their role is to improve them. The way employees are rewarded and recognised also affects the way they behave. Many companies are now seeing the need to develop performance cultures where it is contribution to corporate goals that is rewarded - and seen to be rewarded - and not political skill, level or age. To achieve this performance culture requires coherent direction setting and performance measurement aligned with reward and recognition support systems.

Research suggests that there is no single set of performance measures, no single basis for setting standards for those measures, and no universal reward mechanism that constitute some perfect performance measurement system applicable in all contexts. An analysis of service industries2 published by CIMA (Chartered Institute of Management Accountants) found that the set of performance measures used is dependent on the competitive strategy being adopted and the type of service being delivered. Their research ofa number ofcompanies showed that they were all actively using their performance measurement systems to translate strategy into action. The systems and measures used were under constant review and had been changed, and will continue to change over time as the focus of strategy changes.

Saturday, August 27, 2011

Information Security Governance - Risk Aversion

Using explanations and examples, this section explores the following topics:

  • The notion of risk aversion

  • Determining risk tolerance

  • What assets to protect

  • Short-term and long-term risks

The Notion of Risk Aversion

Risk aversion is highly subjective. One person's high-risk situation is another's light adventure. For example, driving slowly through a tough inner-city neighborhood late at night with the car windows down and the stereo pumping out classical music might appear to be foolhardy, but depending on the viewpoint of those assessing the situation, it could be seen as intensely risky or simply engaging in light comedic adventure. Whether the discussion embodies an individual or an organization, the ability to tolerate risk is wholly personal to that one entity.

Certain organizations are greater targets than others. Companies that engage in activities that might be construed as being less than beneficial to every group in society could find themselves the victims of targeted attacks, whereas smaller, less visible companies might only need to defend against random attacks and potentially disgruntled associates. Regardless of a corporation's visibility, or lack thereof, the potential randomness of attacks implies that every organization is, at certain levels, equally vulnerable.

The ability of corporations to tolerate risk can never be assumed. Whichever route an organization takes to determine its level of tolerance, risk aversion will continue to be an intensely subjective matter.

Why Risk Tolerance Is Inherently Individual

Logic would state that a research and development (R&D)oriented company, as an example, would have a lower tolerance for risk than a chain of convenience stores. The R&D house needs to guard its current research along with its legacy research; losing either could result in significant long-term issues. In comparison, most people might view the risk tolerance of a large chain of convenience stores as relatively high: a large distribution center with a fleet of trucks on the road and a chain of stores that all operate in the same manner, cash in the till, food on the shelves, milk in the cooling unit, and lotto tickets at the register.

Many readers might feel that these two examples are at opposite ends of the spectrum for risk tolerance. And they are, unless you happen to run one of the companies. The convenience store operator is dealing with a different set of issues than the R&D house. Convenience stores are typically quick turns, cash-driven businesses that require speed of cash flow to deliver consistent profitability. Should a server be rendered inoperable, the ability to run products through the till is gone, because bar coding is used extensively in convenience stores. If the till is out of commission, revenue cannot be effectively collected. The store cannot sell its fragile refrigerated items or any of its other time-sensitive products, such as lottery tickets, which are typically a high-volume revenue generator.

The bar coding provides current inventory levels, allowing for reordering on a quick and continual basis. Assuming that the corporate server has suffered a similar fate, the ability to move product through the distribution center and out to the stores is stymied. Consumers, particularly in the convenience sector, are typically fickle. Consistency and reliability are what they are searching for, and should they walk into a store and discover that services are not available, they might not continue frequenting that store in the future. Giving consumers what they want in a quick and efficient manner is at the crux of a convenience store's offeringfrom the product they want to purchase to the ease, consistency, and reliability of the environment in which they purchase it.

These are two very different examples, reflecting two vastly different requirements for enhanced IT security, yet both illustrate compelling argumentsissues for their executive managers to decide. The ability to tolerate risk is relevant to the type of business in which an organization is involved. But ultimately, no single type of business is unequivocally more vulnerable than any other, because the ability and willingness to tolerate risk is highly personal. Organizations do not invest in higher levels of security because of the business in which they are engaged; they invest in greater levels because their tolerance for risk is low.

Determining Risk Tolerance

Whether it concerns an individual or a corporation, risk tolerance is highly personal. One argument says that size, or even type, of business does not necessarily have a bearing on the level of risk a corporation is willing to tolerate. To resolve this argument, an organization attempts to determine its logical risk tolerance level. It can conduct studies to establish the amount of risk it can afford to take on and then logically structure the company based on the findings of the analytical report. But in the end, studies can only make suggestions; logical analyses can only focus on black-and-white issues.

Organizations should take a long-term perspective of risk tolerance and develop a formal review process to ensure that risk tolerance reviews are mandatedand occur at prescribed times. While reviews should ensure that risk tolerance levels are not changed too frequently, or even needlessly, any review process should allow for situational reviews to occur quickly in the event of major structural events, such as change of ownership or other significant happenings.

Which Assets to Protect

Assets are typically viewed as constituting physical goods or intellectual property. But depending on the organization, an asset can also be its operations or, more specifically, its undisturbed operability. An organization, such as a selling forum website whose business is conducted almost completely in the open, could be damaged if its services were severely disrupted. While the website must retain and effectively secure private data, its customers demand reliability, requiring a market that is always open for business. Uninterrupted operability is at the crux of its business.

Short-Term and Long-Term Risks

Risk can be viewed in the near term, as organizations attempt to ascertain damage that could occur if preventative measures were not put in place. Some examples of short-term risks are as follows:

  • Damaged and unavailable equipment

  • Interrupted sales and service revenue

  • Bottlenecked supply chains and production lines

  • IT overtime payroll costs to mend immediate situations

When a long-term approach is assumed, security initiative risks consider the following items:

  • New equipment and its corresponding upgrade path

  • Preliminary and ongoing training

  • Damaged customer relationships

  • Lessened revenue stream

  • Loss of trust

  • Reliability

  • Pertinent other intangible components

Tables below show how low-risk-tolerant and high-risk-tolerant organizations, respectively, can determine how short- and long-term events could affect a corporation's tolerance for risk. Because events that could occur are inherently individual, every corporation should determine its own list of relevant events. Each table has one sample line and a few of the possible risks to show an example of how to get started. An organization could list all the risks in such a table to determine how short- and long-term events could affect a corporation's tolerance for risk.

Table 8-1. Awareness Chart Example for Low-Tolerance Organization

RiskImpactRisk ToleranceRisk-Aversion Decision
Damaged/unavailable equipmentVery highNot tolerantComplete redundancy system
Interrupted sales and service revenue

Table 8-2. Awareness Chart Example for High-Tolerance Organization

RiskImpactRisk ToleranceRisk-Aversion Decision
Damaged/unavailable equipmentVariesTolerantBackup system is manual
Interrupted sales and service revenue

Security Control: System and Information Integrity - Class: Operational




The organization develops, disseminates, and periodically reviews/updates: (i) a formal, documented, system and information integrity policy that addresses purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, and compliance; and (ii) formal, documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the system and information integrity policy and associated system and information integrity controls.

Supplemental Guidance

The system and information integrity policy and procedures are consistent with applicable federal laws, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. The system and information integrity policy can be included as part of the general information security policy for the organization. System and information integrity procedures can be developed for the security program in general, and for a particular information system, when required. NIST Special Publication 800-12 provides guidance on security policies and procedures.

Control Enhancements












The organization identifies, reports, and corrects information system flaws.

Supplemental Guidance

The organization identifies information systems containing proprietary or open source software affected by recently announced software flaws (and potential vulnerabilities resulting from those flaws). Proprietary software can be found in either commercial/government off-the-shelf information technology component products or in custom-developed applications. The organization (or the software developer/vendor in the case of software developed and maintained by a vendor/contractor) promptly installs newly released security relevant patches, service packs, and hot fixes, and tests patches, service packs, and hot fixes for effectiveness and potential side effects on the organization’s information systems before installation. Flaws discovered during security assessments, continuous monitoring (see security controls CA-2, CA-4, or CA-7), or incident response activities (see security control IR-4) should also be addressed expeditiously. NIST Special Publication 800-40 provides guidance on security patch installation.

Control Enhancements

(1) The organization centrally manages the flaw remediation process and installs updates automatically without individual user intervention.

(2) The organization employs automated mechanisms to periodically and upon command determine the state of information system components with regard to flaw remediation.











The information system implements malicious code protection that includes a capability for automatic updates.

Supplemental Guidance

The organization employs virus protection mechanisms at critical information system entry and exit points (e.g., firewalls, electronic mail servers, remote-access servers) and at workstations, servers, or mobile computing devices on the network. The organization uses the virus protection mechanisms to detect and eradicate malicious code (e.g., viruses, worms, Trojan horses) transported: (i) by electronic mail, electronic mail attachments, Internet accesses, removable media (e.g., diskettes or compact disks), or other common means; or (ii) by exploiting information system vulnerabilities. The organization updates virus protection mechanisms (including the latest virus definitions) whenever new releases are available in accordance with organizational configuration management policy and procedures. Consideration is given to using virus protection software products from multiple vendors (e.g., using one vendor for boundary devices and servers and another vendor for workstations).

Control Enhancements

(1) The organization centrally manages virus protection mechanisms.

(2) The information system automatically updates virus protection mechanisms.




SI-3 (1)


SI-3 (1) (2)





The organization employs tools and techniques to monitor events on the information system, detect attacks, and provide identification of unauthorized use of the system.

Supplemental Guidance

Intrusion detection and information system monitoring capability can be achieved through a variety of tools and techniques (e.g., intrusion detection systems, virus protection software, log monitoring software, network forensic analysis tools).

Control Enhancements

(1) The organization networks individual intrusion detection tools into a systemwide intrusion detection system using common protocols.

(2) The organization employs automated tools to support near-real-time analysis of events in support of detecting system-level attacks.

(3) The organization employs automated tools to integrate intrusion detection tools into access control and flow control mechanisms for rapid response to attacks by enabling reconfiguration of these mechanisms in support of attack isolation and elimination.

(4) The information system monitors outbound communications for unusual or unauthorized activities indicating the presence of malware (e.g., malicious code, spyware, adware).


Not Selected









The organization receives information system security alerts/advisories on a regular basis, issues alerts/advisories to appropriate personnel, and takes appropriate actions in response.

Supplemental Guidance

The organization documents the types of actions to be taken in response to security alerts/advisories.

Control Enhancements

(1) The organization employs automated mechanisms to make security alert and advisory information available throughout the organization as needed.











The information system verifies the correct operation of security functions [Selection (one or more): upon system startup and restart, upon command by user with appropriate privilege, periodically every [Assignment: organization-defined time-period]] and [Selection (one or more): notifies system administrator, shuts the system down, restarts the system] when anomalies are discovered.

Supplemental Guidance


Control Enhancements

(1) The organization employs automated mechanisms to provide notification of failed security tests.

(2) The organization employs automated mechanisms to support management of distributed security testing.


Not Selected




SI-6 (1)





The information system detects and protects against unauthorized changes to software and information.

Supplemental Guidance

The organization employs integrity verification applications on the information system to look for evidence of information tampering, errors, and omissions. The organization employs good software engineering practices with regard to commercial off-the-shelf integrity mechanisms (e.g., parity checks, cyclical redundancy checks, cryptographic hashes) and uses tools to automatically monitor the integrity of the information system and the applications it hosts.

Control Enhancements



Not Selected


Not Selected







The information system implements spam and spyware protection.

Supplemental Guidance

The organization employs spam and spyware protection mechanisms at critical information system entry points (e.g., firewalls, electronic mail servers, remote-access servers) and at workstations, servers, or mobile computing devices on the network. The organization uses the spam and spyware protection mechanisms to detect and take appropriate action on unsolicited messages and spyware/adware, respectively, transported by electronic mail, electronic mail attachments, Internet accesses, removable media (e.g., diskettes or compact disks), or other common means. Consideration is given to using spam and spyware protection software products from multiple vendors (e.g., using one vendor for boundary devices and servers and another vendor for workstations).

Control Enhancements

(1) The organization centrally manages spam and spyware protection mechanisms.

(2) The information system automatically updates spam and spyware protection mechanisms.


Not Selected




SI-8 (1)





The organization restricts the information input to the information system to authorized personnel only.

Supplemental Guidance

Restrictions on personnel authorized to input information to the information system may extend beyond the typical access controls employed by the system and include limitations based on specific operational/project responsibilities.

Control Enhancements



Not Selected









The information system checks information inputs for accuracy, completeness, and validity.

Supplemental Guidance

Checks for accuracy, completeness, and validity of information should be accomplished as close to the point of origin as possible. Rules for checking the valid syntax of information system inputs (e.g., character set, length, numerical range, acceptable values) are in place to ensure that inputs match specified definitions for format and content. Inputs passed to interpreters should be prescreened to ensure the content is not unintentionally interpreted as commands. The extent to which the information system is able to check the accuracy, completeness, and validity of information inputs should be guided by organizational policy and operational requirements.

Control Enhancements



Not Selected







The information system identifies and handles error conditions in an expeditious manner.

Supplemental Guidance

The structure and content of error messages should be carefully considered by the organization. User error messages generated by the information system should provide timely and useful information to users without revealing information that could be exploited by adversaries. System error messages should be revealed only to authorized personnel (e.g., systems administrators, maintenance personnel). Sensitive information (e.g., account numbers, social security numbers, and credit card numbers) should not be listed in error logs or associated administrative messages. The extent to which the information system is able to identify and handle error conditions should be guided by organizational policy and operational requirements.

Control Enhancements



Not Selected









The organization handles and retains output from the information system in accordance with organizational policy and operational requirements.

Supplemental Guidance


Control Enhancements



Not Selected





Friday, August 26, 2011

Mobile advertising is the next big thing in the advertising industry

A System for Displaying Mobile Ads: Are Operators Interested? The adoption of sophisticated mobile operating systems and web integration make mobile phones good platforms for advertising.

Some sectors however are wondering if cellular operators are interested in running mobile ads. The answer to this is yes. Mobile operators do want to run mobile ads because these are additional income streams for them.

The stumbling block however will come from subscribers. Most mobile phone subscribers voice out their opposition on mobile advertising. They consider ads on their phones as intrusive and counterproductive.

Based on this sentiment, mobile operators have no choice but to follow subscriber interests. Besides, mobile subscribers pay for the service and it is their right not to want inline ads running on their mobile devices.

The introduction of mobile web services and capability for Internet connectivity changed the entire picture. Because sub-scribers can get on-demand content, advertisers could think of better ways how to display mobile ads.

For example, if mobile phone users access free content such as free videos, audio, or other web resources, advertisers can have the opportunity to show ads on these free downloaded materials. It's just like the advertisements you see on free TV.

On the other hand if mobile subscribers want no ads on their devices, then they should pay a fee for accessing content. This would be similar to an ad-free but paid cable TV programming.

Mobile advertising opens up new opportunities for advertisers. If mobile carriers and advertisers can agree on what system to use for displaying mobile ads, you might see more adverts on the free content you download to your mobile phone.

Hundreds Kaplan Kindle Ebooks Free Download for Nook, iBooks and the Sony Reader

Kaplan, a subsidiary of the Washington Post Company, offers higher education programs, vocational training, the test preparation materials, reference books and other services for different levels of education. As part of 2011 New Year's celebration with the theme "New year, new possibilities," Kaplan is giving away over 130 free eBooks published by Kaplan in various platforms electronic book reader.

Free e-books are available in NOOKcolor Kaplan, iBooks (IPAD, the iPhone and iPod touch), Amazon Kindle (device and applications) and Sony eReader in 4-on 17 2011. Most of them are students of various levels of education to prepare for the SAT, PSAT, AP, GMAT, MAT, GRE, MCAT and MBA examinations.

Kaplan Free eBooks Download

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Thursday, August 25, 2011

Data format - Microformat

Wednesday, August 24, 2011

The Best and Effective Ways towards Mobile Marketing

One of the inventions that made communication a lot easier is the telephone. And not surprisingly, this became a massive hit in the market when in was first launched in the market. The ingenuity of people made it possible to re-invent this greatest invention of our lifetime into something that is portable and handheld. The mobile invention became a hit in the market. The portable and handheld phone made it possible for people to communicate instantly and comfortably.

Now, because the demand for mobile phones has soared high, makers have started to develop and create various kinds of mobile gadgets. The invasion of the mobile phone in the industry gave people a lot of choice and dynamic options. This led to a challenge on how to better market the mobile product. Below are some of the effective means on how to attain the best mobile marketing strategies:
a. The mobile should be the state of the art. In this age where people are brand and fashion conscious, it adds up for a phone to be marketable when it belongs to the top of the line.
b. The mobile should spell practicality in both price and features. People also know what equates the money they spend for the gadget. You have to make sure that the mobile product is capable of equating its price with the features that it possesses.
c. The mobile should be sleek and handy. The external and physical appearance of the mobile phone counts a lot most especially in a society driven by aesthetics and fashion.

Buying RAID server guide and data recovery

Modern enterprises attach great importance to the construction of information technology, especially within the enterprise data management, etc., many companies have their own internal servers for the deployment of file storage, application deployment deployment server. If the current business, then the appropriate information technology equipment, has become an indispensable part of the server across the enterprise information technology has played a very big role, and therefore essential information products.

Now the biggest problem facing the business may be funding issues, in the procurement of products naturally need to face costs are low, but requires the high performance, in order to meet the business needs of present and future, high-performance server is naturally necessary to The. However, in the server's choice, nor is it as we think, that needs a lot of money in order to get a strong performance of the server, perhaps to buy for their own servers more important.

When you purchase the server, we must first consider the server's architecture, currently on the market of servers they use a rack-mount and tower two kinds of structures, is a rack full compliance with international standards, server architecture, its main characteristic is that small footprint, and very easy to deploy in a standard rack, which for those who need to deploy the user volume is very important, and because now hosting servers are managed by standard rack to count the cost, so the standard rack-mounted server custody fees have hosted fewer features, more suitable for mass deployment of rack-mounted servers and hosting customers to buy. Another tower server form and we normally use a desktop machine similar to, the drawback is that bulky, and not a standard structure, the bulk deployment is very inconvenient, the other is occupied by bulky, in the Trusteeship Council when the need for more Multi-managed costs, the advantage is that technology is mature, demand is low, so the price also has a very good performance, while inside a large space, in the extended sexual performance is more prominent. Therefore, for the use of the servers within the enterprise, the basic issue of space does not exist, while for the newly established enterprises without the need to build large data centers, so I think the tower server is the best option.

5 Zhou SA4503 SATA buying guide price 15,000 RMB

5 Zhou server is traditionally based on cost-effective, claiming its product has a very good price. The SA4503 Hao Long series with AMD quad-core processors, has a very good computing processing power, using tower structural design, with very good scalability, while its price is only 15,000 yuan, cost-effective very prominent.

5 Zhou SA4503 SATA standard provides an AMD Opteron 2350 quad-core processor, the core frequency of 2.0GHz, FSB 1000MHz, quad-core shared 2MB level-two cache, the largest support for dual AMD Opteron quad-core or dual-core processors. Standard 2GB DDR2 667 server memory, support ECC data validation functionality.

Storage, the standard offers a 160GB SATA Non-Hot Plug hard drives, motherboards, integrated six SATA hard disk interface, the largest hard disk capacity can support 9TB fully meet the storage needs of enterprise customers. Also equipped with RAID 0,1,1 +0 RAID functionality, users can according to their actual need for additional hard disk array set up in order to achieve faster data transmission or data security. To provide a 52X CD-ROM CD-ROM drive. Integrated dual Gigabit Ethernet cards. Extension, the provision of a 64Bit/100MHz PCI-X, 4 Total 5 Tiao 32Bit/33MHz PCI expansion slots. A 500W power supply for the server machine dedicated to provide electricity to support.

Edit Comment: Five boats SA4503 SATA uses Quad-Core AMD Opteron processors can provide users with faster computing processing power, SATA hard drive is more easily extended, while the prices of SATA hard drive is relatively low, a single hard drive capacity is also relatively large, in particular, used as a storage server for enterprise use. The price is only 15,000 yuan allowed to have a very good price.

Dell PowerEdge T300 buying guide price 7700 yuan

Dell PowerEdge T300 is a new user specifically for small and medium enterprises tower server product, Edison is equipped with Intel's 45nm Xeon 3000 series processors, enables SMB customers to get more value of server performance and reliability, the aircraft also with ultra-low price of only 8,000 yuan for the entrepreneur, this is a very good choice.

Dell PowerEdge T300 with 5U tower structural design, to provide a standard quad-core Intel Xeon X3323 processors, the core frequency of 2.5GHz, front-side bus to 1333MHz, 2 quad-core 6MB shared cache, the largest single-way Intel Xeon dual-core or quad-core processors. Standard offers 1GB DDR2 667 ECC server memory, the largest support 24GB of memory capacity.

Storage, the standard offers a 160GB SATA Non-Hot Plug hard drives, the largest 4TB of hard disk capacity can support. Extensions, which integrates two PCI Express X8, 2 Ge PCI Express X4, 1 Ge 64Bit/133MHz PCI-X a total of five expansion slots, and 4TB hard drives and 24GB of memory expansion capacity, fully satisfy the user in the future entrepreneurial expansion needs. The aircraft also provides a DVD-ROM CD-ROM drive and dual Gigabit Ethernet cards.

Edit Comment: As a single tower servers, Dell PowerEdge T300's performance in all aspects were very good, although slightly less than one-way design, but its good scalability, as well as outstanding performance, fully satisfy the small and medium sized and entrepreneurial enterprise user's needs, and only the price of 8,000 yuan from the budget a good start-ups can be assured the purchase.

HP ProLiant ML150 G5 (AL559A) purchase guide price 9600 yuan

Hewlett-Packard has been in small and medium enterprise server performance is very good, this is a HP ML150 G5 Following the launch of a new generation after the G3 series of entry-level enterprise servers, is designed for small and medium enterprise application product, which uses a quad-core Xeon processor design, and provides a common interface to SATA hard drive support, the current price of just 9600 yuan.

HP ProLiant ML150 G5 (AL559A) using 5U tower structural design, with Intel 5100 server chipset, providing a standard 65-nanometer Intel Xeon quad-core E5405 processor, the core frequency of 2.0GHz, front-side bus to 1333MHz, 2 quad-core 12MB shared cache, maximum support dual Intel Xeon quad-core or dual-core processors. Standard offers 1GB DDR2 667 ECC Fully Buffered memory, maximum support 16GB of memory capacity.

Storage, the standard offers a 250GB SATA Non-Hot Plug hard drives, providing four non-hot-swap SATA drive bays, the largest support 6TB of SATA hard disk capacity. Integrated HP Embedded SATA RAID controller, supports RAID 0,1 function of the disk array. To provide a SATA DVD-ROM CD-ROM drive, integrated HP NC105i PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet card, support Wake on LAN feature. Extension, is equipped with six expansion slots. 1 650W non-redundant, non-hot-swappable power supplies provide power for the machine supports.

Edit Comment: As a new generation of HP servers for SMBs ML150 G5 (AL559A) in all aspects of the performance are very good, with quad-core processor design that can provide a better computing processing power, tower server, the expansion of good of the plane also had a very good performance, SATA RAID arrays feature allows users to set up according to their own needs disk array to achieve the provision of hard disk data read speed and data security.

Lenovo foolproof guide price 8,000 yuan to buy T260 S5405

Lenovo T260 is a foolproof system for SMEs, application-level tower server, using Intel's quad-core Xeon processors in the computing and data processing have very good performance, the aircraft also with a foolproof eye III management software, through the graphica
interface allows administrators to easily conduct of server operating systems to deploy and manage, reducing the server's difficult to manage, the aircraft also has the low price of only 8,000 yuan.

Lenovo foolproof T260 using 5U tower structural design, to provide a standard 45-nanometer Intel Xeon quad-core E5405 processor, the core frequency of 2.0GHz, front-side bus to 1333MHz, 2 quad-core 12MB shared cache, the largest support for dual Intel Xeon dual-core or quad-core processors. Comes standard with 1GB DDR2 667 server memory, motherboards, integrated memory expansion slots 6, up to 24GB ECC REG DDR2 memory.

Storage, the standard provides two 250GB SATA Non-Hot Plug hard drives, the largest support four hot-swappable SATA2 hard drives, maximum support 6TB of hard disk capacity. Motherboard integrated RAID 0,1 function of the disk array. Standard provides COMBO burner, as well as the standard 1.44MB floppy drive. Integrated Intel Gigabit Ethernet LAN networking. Extension, the provision of a PCI Express X16, 2 Ge PCI Express X8 (X8 + X4), 1 a total of four Ge 23Bit/33MHz PCI expansion slots.

Edit Comment: Lenovo foolproof T260 supports dual 45nm quad-core Xeon processors, can provide more computing processing power, can carry much of the computing needs of SMEs. Meanwhile, this also has a good scalability for entrepreneurial businesses, which can work in future upgrades to provide better application performance to meet the needs of the development of enterprises. At the same time eye III management suite for IT inexperienced entrepreneurial enterprise customers with more convenience

Monday, August 22, 2011

Business Intelligence Software 2010 Directory part 5

UNIT4 CODA - Coda Business Intelligence

Integrates with existing systems, includes flexible reporting facilities, personalized user portals, and analytic capability. 

Target Market: Mid - Large

Value Chain Solutions - e-cubix

Delivers control of your organization's performance with its powerful visualization and proactive leading performance indicators. 

Target Market: Mid - Large

Vanguard Software - The Vanguard System

Captures management estimates and company know-how from individuals throughout your organization. 

Target Market: Mid - Large

Vendor Managed Technologies - Velocity

Retail POS and inventory data warehouse and analysis for consumer goods manufacturers giving retail suppliers a competitive edge. 

Target Market: Mid - Large

Vertica Systems - Vertica Analytic Database

Column-oriented RDBMS architecture that provides blinding ad-hoc query performance for data marts and data warehouses. 

Target Market: Mid - Large

Via Systems - myViewpoint

Graphical business intelligence solution to monitor your key business performance metrics for tactical decision making. 

Target Market: Mid - Large

Visibility - Business Intelligence

Enable organizations to effectively gather, deliver and analyze key performance information. 

Target Market: Mid

Visual Interactions - Visual Interrogator

Pre-configured, interactive visual query, analysis, decision support and reporting solution that comes ready to use. 

Target Market: Small - Mid

Visual Mining - NetCharts Performance Dashboards

Dashboards and metric reporting clearly communicate business objectives throughout your organization. 

Target Market: Mid - Large

WellPoint Systems - WellPoint Intelligent Dashboard

Provides critical information Oil & Gas companies need in making insightful decisions based on changes in business and markets 

Target Market: Mid - Large

WhiteSpace Solutions - Skimmer

Automated legacy database reporting. 

Target Market: Large

Windward Studios - Windward Reports

Windward Reports is a fast, easy, and powerful reporting engine for your Java/.NET system.  

Target Market: Mid - Large

WinPure - WinPure ListCleaner Pro

Powerful & simple-to-use application that allows you to clean, correct and dedupe lists. 

Target Market: Mid


Suite of tools that fullfill reporting and analysis needs of ambitious enterprises. 

Target Market: Mid - Large

Yaaman - SwifferChart

Data visualization tool XML and Flash based graph generation. 

Target Market: Small - Mid

Yellowfin International - Yellowfin

Yellowfin is a flexible solution for web based reporting and analytics - analytics, querying, flexible reports and dashboards. 100% web-based. 

Target Market: Mid - Large

Zap Technology - Zap Business Intelligence

OLAP reporting and Analysis, SQL managed reporting, KPI and Scorecarding, business alerts. 

Target Market: Mid - Large

Zilliant - Zilliant Precision Pricing Suite

Industry-leading price optimization and management software improves all facets of business-to-business pricing. 

Target Market: Large


There is one fundamental difference between a victim and a perpetrator. The victim did not act with malice. The perpetrators of crime may be casual or sophisticated. Their motive may be financial, political, thrill seeking, or a biased grudge against the organization. The damage impact is usually the same regardless of the perpetrator’s background or motive. A common trait is that a perpetrator will have time, access, or skills necessary to execute the offense.

Today’s computer criminal does not require advanced skills, although they would help.A person with mal-intent needs little more than access to launch their attack. For this reason, strong access controls are mandatory. The FBI reported the number of internal attacks vs. external attacks were approximately equal in 2005. So, who is the attacker?


The term hacker contains a double meaning. The honorable interpretation of hacker refers to a computer programmer who is able to create usable computer programs where none previously existed. In this Study Guide, we refer to the dishonorable interpretation of a hacker an undesirable criminal. The criminal hacker focuses on a desire to break in, take over, and damage or discredit legitimate computer processing. The first goal of hacking is to exceed the authorized level of system privileges.

This is why it is necessary to monitor systems and take swift action against any individual who attempts to gain a higher level of access. Hackers may be internal or external to the organization. Attempts to gain unauthorized access within the organization should be dealt with by using the highest level of severity, including immediate termination of employment.


The term cracker is a variation of hacker, with the analogy equal to a safe cracker. Some individuals use the term cracker in an attempt to differentiate from the honorable computer programmer definition of hacker. The criminal cracker and criminal hacker terms are used interchangeably. Crackers attempt to illegally or unethically break into a system without authorization.

Script Kiddies

A script kiddie is an individual who executes computer scripts and programs written by others. Their motive is to hack a computer by using someone else’s software. Examples include password decryption programs and automated access utilities.

Employee Betrayal

A person within the organization has more access and opportunity than anyone else. Few persons would have a better understanding of the security posture and weaknesses. In fact, an employee may be in a position of influence to socially engineer coworkers into ignoring safeguards and alert conditions. Some individuals participate in special training to learn about penetrating computer defenses. This will usually result in one of two outcomes. In the first outcome, a few of the ethical white hat technicians will exercise extraordinary restraint and control. And the other one is turn to a very bad guy.

Third Parties

Third parties are external persons include visitors, vendors, consultants, maintenance personnel, and the cleaning crew. These individuals may gain access and knowledge of the internal organization.You can bet this same organization allows their vendors to work unsupervised. In the evening, the cleaning crew will unlock and open every door on the floor for several hours while vacuuming and emptying waste baskets. We seriously doubt the cleaning crew would challenge a stranger entering the office. In fact, a low-paid cleaning crew may be exercising their own agenda.


The term ignorance is simply defined as the lack of knowledge. An ignorant person may be a party to a crime and not even know it. Even worse, the individual may be committing an offense without realizing the impact of their actions. Fortunately, ignorance can be cured by training. This is the objective of user training for internal controls. By teaching the purpose of internal security controls, the organization can reduce their overall risk.

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